Thursday, March 19, 2020

Rise and Development of Nationalism in East Asia

Rise and Development of Nationalism in East Asia Introduction Nationalism means the identities that people have, which they view as distinguishing them uniquely as belonging to a particular nation. Thus, it covers one of the forms of patriotism. Several theories can be employed to provide an explanation of the origin of nationalism. The main ones are modernism and primordialist views.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Rise and Development of Nationalism in East Asia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Modernism theory considers nationalism as a recent societal process, which demands societal structuring for it to develop. On the other hand, the primordialist â€Å"describes nationalism as a reflection of the ancient and perceived evolutionary behavior of humans to organize themselves into distinct groupings based on the affinity of birth† (Tamir 13). The paper uses the primordialist view. Based on the theory, nationalism may develop based on cultural artifacts de fining people living within a given nation and political-related experiences in a nation among other things. From this point of view, this paper discuses the rise and development of nationalism in East Asia based on historic political related experiences and cultural elements including religion and clothing. Japan and china are used as the main examples in this quest. Rise and Development of Nationalism in China and Japan Cultural elements may act as mechanisms that can help to instill the perception of nationalism among people living within a common geographical area. Theses artifacts may be depicted through clothing, language, and religion. With the onset of westernization, Chinese people encountered a dilemma whether to abandon their own clothing styles that defined their heritage and hence a sense of belonging as Chinese nationals or to adopt the rising western styles of dressing. This dilemma motivates Finnane to wonder what Chinese women deserve to wear for them to retain the symbol of nationalism (99). Given the history of China that is rich in customs, the question is significant since resistance to the degradation of nationalism depicted by dressing style was evident as from 1949 when Mao Zedong declined from wearing black leather shoes and a suit. According to Finnane, the head of state argued, â€Å"we Chinese have our own customs†¦why should we follow others† (99). This resistance was a replication of over half decade debates questioning the capacity of the western influences to impair the dressing codes of the Chinese people. Over that period, alterations of style were incredibly controversial. They attracted hefty public debates particularly when they involved the question of the women dress. The main interrogatives were whether the women dresses need to be long or short, tight or loose, or cover the arms for them to depict Chinese national women.Advertising Looking for essay on asian? Let's see if we can help you! Get your fi rst paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the reign of Mao, the question on what Chinese people wore attracted superficial analysis. However, dressing styles and the type of clothes that were won by Chinese people acted as wonderful mechanisms of differentiating between China and the rest of the nations in the world. In this line of thought, Finnane reinforces, â€Å"For politically correct Chinese people, clothing at that time differentiated the socialist elect from the rest†¦for outsiders, it was the single most obvious feature about contemporary Chinese culture† (100). Clothes were depictive of Chinese culture and hence a symbol of Chinese people. Even though much of the concerns about the alteration of the dressing to have the capacity to erode the culture of the Chinese people concerned what women wore in the ninetieth century, the link between nationalism and the clothing was not only a problem of women: men were also equally worried. This argument i s strengthened by the Mao Zedong’s rejection to wear a suit associated with the western culture. Outside the Chinese context, clothing remains an important symbol of nationalism in other nations in the East Asia. For instance, in India, cladding in ‘sari’ represents a sovereign Indian woman because â€Å"the fertile ground for production of future generations both past and future-were embodied in her,† (Finnane 102). On the other hand, in Japan, a woman dressed in ‘kimono’ profiles an ideal sovereign Japanese woman. From these examples, it sounds essential to infer that the perception of nationalism among people cannot be segregated from the cladding codes acceptable as representing the true national of a given nation because cultural artifacts are depictive of cultural differences among people who are often confined within different national boundaries. Apart from the rise and development of nationalism from the context of dressing style, rel igion is yet another crucial cultural artifact that may help to build the perception of nationalism among different people living in different nations. For instance, in Japan, subscription to Shinto is perhaps an essential way of portraying ones strongly grounded spirit of nationalism. Shinto assumed its shape upon the arrival of Buddhism. This was vital in helping to differentiate the new religion to the indigenous religion in Japan that was the representation of the ‘Japanese’.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Rise and Development of Nationalism in East Asia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Okuyama strengthens this point by further asserting, â€Å"Some 100,000 shrines of jinja served by Shinto priests attest to its physical presence nationwide† (94). Shinto defines the religious practices of the indigenous native Japanese to mean ‘the ways of ‘kami’ as opposed to ‘the w ays of Buddha’. Therefore, since the introduction of Buddhism in the 16th century, Shinto practices became definitive of the true Japanese nationalism. However, it is also crucial to note that Japanese people consider traditional customs as defining nationalism in spite of â€Å"whether they are Shinto or not† (Okuyama 97). The question that emerges is- to what extent do Japanese people perceive Shinto as a true representation of nationalism? The response to the above question is perhaps well answered by considering the significance of Shinto shrines among all citizens of Japan including the nobles. In this regard, Okuyama reckons, â€Å"since he became the prime minister, Koizumi Jun’ichiro visited Yasukuni Shrine four times: 13 August 2001, 21 April 2002, 14 January 2003, and 1 January 2004† (106). Nevertheless, even though this may be anticipated to be acceptable within the understanding of the traditional customs of Japanese people, the visits attract ed opposition. Consequently, about seven lawsuits ensued as a result. Nevertheless, Koizumi remained confident that the visits were necessary for a number of reasons. In the first place, the shrines served to portray his nationalism since they formed the places where he renewed vows never to take part in wars. Secondly, â€Å"he visited Yasukuni shrines to express relevance and gratitude to all the war dead despite the fact that these include class A war criminal† (Okuyama 106). Arguably, from this cited reason of why Koizumi visited the shrine, it is questionable whether the shines are the best places to show ones patriotism. However, it is evident that Japanese people have a strong prescription to traditional religious beliefs as the main ways of portraying sincerity in ones commitments to the Japanese people and the nation as a whole. The analysis of Shintoism as one of the theories of development of nationalism in Japan cannot be accomplished without considering the philo sophers’ attempts to ensure the national beliefs were revived and purified.Advertising Looking for essay on asian? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The idea was to enhance the removal of all foreign ideas that were imported from various nations including China and India. The Shintoism restoration movement began in the 18th century with Motoori Noringa playing proactive roles. This campaign gave rise to the state Shinto with the emperor of Japan then claiming to be of Amaterasu decently. A certain representation that tends to link people together creates the spirit of nationalism. According to Wang, the identification may include â€Å"Chinas neo-neo-tribe and â€Å"Japanese shin shin jinrei† (547). To Wang, such a representation can be used to secure a market for a particular product because it has high likelihoods of securing an immense success when a product is marketed based on its capacity to create a sense of nationalism. For instance, Wang argues that the term bobo has the impact of bringing Chinese people together by creating messages of premium value (535). What this argument means is that the spirit of national ism can also be build by the products produced by nations. Therefore, consumption of such products helps to depict that one is truly a patriot of a given nation. Using the Wang’s analogy, the term bobo is related to being a Chinese and belonging to a bobo class. Subsequently, when a product is sold bearing the tag that it is principally made for the bobos, it means that buying this product will not only mean fitting into the bobo class. Besides, it will also depict one as a sovereign citizen of the nation where the bobos live! From a different dimension, nationalism may be built based on the experiences that people go through as a nation. Recollection of such experiences helps to remind one of the history encountered, which is definitive of why one is a nationalist of a given nation. This kind of nationalism is perhaps well exemplified by Japan through her Hiroshima trauma. Painful experiences are crucial reflections of what it takes to be a nationalist since they provide lin ks between different cultures (Caruth 3). Therefore, while Japan may be segregated based on different cultural affiliations, the Hiroshima experiences make Japanese people develop a sense of nationalism, which is critical in helping the nation to employ all strategies possible to ensure that such an experience would never reoccur. Therefore, the Hiroshima experience is one unifying experience that ensures all Japanese are united together amid their demographic differences (Wood 191). Arguably, this is crucial since nationalism is hard to thrive in an environment that is ruled by segregations. Conclusion Therefore, based on the expositions made in the paper, it is enough to declare nationalism a representation of people’s identities. The identities help in building the spirit of patriotism. Cultural elements show people’s identities and political experiences especially the ones that culminated into painful experiences. In this paper, nationalism has been explored throug h consideration of clothing as one of the ways of presentation of people’s cultural artifacts in the Chinese and Japanese contexts. The Hiroshima experience has also been considered as an example of painful experiences that has helped to shape the Japanese view of nationalism. Caruth, Cathy. Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative and History, Baltimore: Johnhopkins University press, 1996. Print. Finnane, Antonia. â€Å"What Should Chinese Women Wear?† Modern China 22.2(1996): 99-131. Print. Okuyama, Michiaki. Historicizing Modern Shinto: A New Tradition of Yasukuni Shrine.  Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2005. Print. Tamir, Yael. Liberal Nationalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. Print. Wang, Jing. â€Å"Bourgeois Bohemians in China? Neo-Tribes and the Urban Imaginary.† The China Quarterly 183.3(2005): 532-548. Print. Wood, Nancy. Vectors of Memory: Legacies of Trauma in Postwar Europe. New Jersey, NJ: Berg Publishers, 1999. Print.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Commerce Clause Meaning and Applications

Commerce Clause Meaning and Applications The Commerce Clause is a provision of the U.S. Constitution (Article 1, Section 8) that grants Congress the power â€Å"to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes. This law gives the federal government the power to regulate interstate commerce, which it defines as the sale, purchase, or exchange of commodities or the transportation of people, money, or goods between different states.   Congress has historically cited the Commerce Clause as justification for laws and regulations controlling the activities of the states and their citizens. In some instances, these laws lead to controversy over the constitutional division between the powers of the federal government and rights of the states. Dormant Commerce Clause The courts have interpreted the Commerce Clause as not only an explicit grant of power to Congress, but also an implied ban against state laws that conflict with federal law- sometimes called the Dormant Commerce Clause. The Dormant Commerce Clause refers to the Commerce Clause’s implied prohibition against state laws that conflict with federal law by discriminating against or excessively burdening interstate commerce. This prohibition is primarily intended to prevent the states from enacting â€Å"protectionist† trade laws. What Is Commerce? Since the Constitution does not explicitly define â€Å"commerce,† the exact meaning is a source of legal debate. Some constitutional scholars contend that â€Å"commerce† refers only to trade or exchange. Others argue that it has a broader meaning, referring to all commercial and social interaction between residents of different states. These divergent interpretations create a controversial line between federal and state power. Interpretation of Commerce: 1824 to 1995 The first legal interpretation of the scope of the Commerce Clause came in 1824, when the Supreme Court decided the case of Gibbons v. Ogden. In one of the first major expansions of the powers of the federal government, the Court ruled that Congress could use the Commerce Clause to enact laws regulating both interstate and intrastate trade. In the 1905 case of Swift and Company v. United States, the Supreme Court refined its 1824 interpretation by ruling that Congress could apply the Commerce Clause in regulating the practices of local businesses- intrastate commerce- only if those local business practices were in some way a part of a â€Å"current† or stream of commerce that also involved the movement of goods between states. In the 1937 case of NLRB v. Jones Laughlin Steel Corp, the Court significantly broadened the reach of the Commerce Clause. Specifically, the Court held that any local business activity could be defined as â€Å"commerce† as long as it had or was likely to have a â€Å"substantial economic effect† on interstate commerce. Under this interpretation, for example, Congress gained the power to enact laws regulating local firearms dealers if any of the guns they sell are manufactured outside of their states. Over the next 58 years, not a single law based on the Commerce Clause was invalidated by the Supreme Court. Then, in 1995, the Court narrowed its interpretation of commerce with its ruling in the case of United States v. Lopez. In its decision, the Court struck down parts of the federal Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1990, finding that the act of possessing a firearm is not an economic activity. Current Interpretation: The Three-Part Test When deciding that a state law is a valid exercise of the state’s power to regulate interstate commerce under the implied prohibitions of the Commerce Clause, the Supreme Court now applies this three-part test: The law must in no way discriminate against or excessively interfere with interstate commerce.The commerce regulated by the state law must not be of a nature that requires regulation by the federal government.The federal government’s interest in regulating the commerce in question must not outweigh the interest of the state. To uphold a state law under the Commerce Clause, the Supreme Court must find that the law’s benefits outweigh its burdens on interstate commerce. In addition, the Court must find that in enacting the law, the state is not attempting to advance the economic interest of its own citizens over those of the citizens of other states. Current Applications in Law In its 2005 decision in the case of Gonzales v. Raich, the Court returned to a wider interpretation of the Commerce Clause when it upheld federal laws regulating the production of marijuana in states that had legalized marijuana possession. The Supreme Court’s most recent interpretation of the Commerce Clause came from the 2012 case of NFIB v. Sebelius, in which the Court upheld Congress’ power to enact the individual mandate provision of the Affordable Care Act requiring all uninsured individuals to secure health insurance or pay a tax penalty. In reaching its 5-4 decision, the Court found that while the mandate was a constitutional exercise of Congress’ power to tax, it was not a proper use of Congresss Commerce Clause or Necessary and Proper Clause powers. Sources †Commerce Clauseâ€Å" Legal Information Institute. Cornell Law School.â€Å"Commerce Clause Limitations on State Regulation.† University of Missouri-Kansas CityWilliams, Norman. Why Congress May Not Overrule the Dormant Commerce Clause. UCLA Law Review (2005). â€Å"Federal Courts Split on Constitutionality of Individual Mandate in Health Care Law.† Regulatory Review (2011).

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Management Accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Management Accounting - Essay Example Well whatever the reason is, it is surely time that we sit down, assess and analyse the system as a whole and try coming out with both, a reason and a solution for all this happening. Arguably the main reason of reaching such a unpleasant situation is that, major stakeholders, whether it’s the big companies or the government, they have mainly focussed on short term achievement and plans rather than analysing, assessing and planning for longer term success. Hence before we consider entering in a developing country for investment purposes I would like to reflect some light on different aspect of sustainability reporting, the differences between sustainability reporting and traditional reporting and the benefits of sustainability reporting. Introduction A sustainability report mainly focuses, in fact constitutes, three elements or dimension, namely, social, economic and environmental. Due to this fact is often known as triple bottom line or 3BL. Some even regards is as a planet, profit, people principle. While discussing this aspect, sustainability reporting is often substituted for environmental social and governance reporting and corporate social responsibility as the whole idea is almost the same. The framework of sustainability is set up by GRI (Global Reporting initiative), a non-profit organisation. Difference between sustainability reporting and traditional reporting Sustainability reports differs from traditional reporting in a few important ways. Sustainability reports stress on the fact of maximising stakeholder value rather than only shareholder value. Stakeholder in this context refers to someone in fact anyone that is affected by the organisations actions whether it be directly or indirectly. Customers, civil societies, employees, financers and the community as a whole are all included in the list of stakeholders. Another crucial difference is that sustainability reports do not require each aspect to be in monetary term. That is some indicators may just be included as a comparison as the previous years to help analyse how the company is performing. In traditional reporting all reported data is produced in monetary terms. Sustainability reports produce comparison data due to the fact that some performance indicators may not be valued accurately in monetary terms, thus, are better off used as a mean of comparison. An example may be that of the pollution waste produce by the organisation. This may be reported as number of tons of wastage produced or even waste per unit of production. Both can be compared with that of other organisations depending on what indicator the other organisation has preferred. The sorts of information that they will need to include in a sustainability report of why they should be included The main reason to produce a sustainability report is to provide a true representation of the sustainable performance of an entity, that is, a reasonable and balanced presentation of the entity performance that incl udes both its positive contributions and negative contributions. Sustainability reporting helps organisations produce sustainable information of an

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Berman v. dept of interior - ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Berman v. dept of interior - ethics - Essay Example POGO filed a suit against the oil companies based on this fact, which resulted into the oil companies making a settlement of $440 million to the United States. POGO thereof honored its agreement with Berman and Berman received a check of $383,600, which on the face side of the the check indicated that it is a public service award to Berman for working for the government. It is on this basis the United States government filed a suit against Berman stating that Berman had violated section 209(a) by using his office for private gain since he had accepted the amount from POGO, which is a private entity. This led to his removal from office. Berman appealed the judgment passed, but to no gain. This is because the jury based his ruling on the fact that Berman did not consult any ethics official in the agency for advice before entering into the agreement. His agreement with POGO clearly showed that he intended to use his office for private gain. This showed how reckless Berman was in performing his duties. This case seeks to show how important it is for employees to observe the highest levels of ethical conduct. As evident in this case, despite Bermans 26 years of service in the government and having no record of crime earlier, it was not sufficient to prevent him from losing his job. Therefore, it is important that employees observe appropriate ethical behaviors while at work. This case seeks to show how important it is for the state also to be efficient enough in its duties. It shows that the state was not doing enough to curb fraud in the United States. Such fraud should be exposed at an early stage to avoid wrongful decision-making by the state. POGO argued that oil companies had committed fraud since they had undervalued the oil they got from the federal lands; hence, formulating undervalued reports and making undervalued payments to the state in terms of royalties. POGO considered this act as being totally unethical to have been

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Contrastive analysis

Contrastive analysis Contrastive analysis(CA) is a method to distinguish between what are needed and not needed to learn by the target language(TL) learner by evaluating languages (M.Gass Selinker, 2008). In addition, CA is a technique to identify whether two languages have something in common, which assess both similarities and differences in languages, conforming to the belief in language universals. (Johnson, 1999). Both statements indicate that CA holds a principle which is important in order to identify what are required by the TL learner to learn in TL and what are not. If there is no familiar characteristic in the languages, it indicates that the learner might have difficulty in learning the TL. While much could be said about comparing languages, a more important aspect is about the influence from TL in first language (L1). â€Å"Contrastive analysis stresses the influence of the mother tongue in learning a second language in phonological, morphological, lexical and syntactic levels. It holds that second language would be affected by first language† (Jie, 2008, p. 36). On the same score, Wardhaugh asserts that first language of TA learners can clarify all â€Å"errors† that are constantly made them. These arguments prove that the errors make by the TL learner are explainable in the L1. Indeed, this idea is conformed to the rule of CA, which believes in language universal. However, this analysis has disadvantages. In Susan M. Gass and Larry Selinker words, they believe that this analysis is questioned because of the concept of difficulty as the basic theory of the CA is concerning the difficultness. If an error is made by a person, this shows that the person has a problem in some area, not because of the native language. Thus, we cannot presume that fluency of a target language learner is depending on the nature of L1. There are more aspects that related to this matter. â€Å"There are other factors that may influence the process of acquisition such as innate principle of language, attitude, motivation, aptitude, age, other languages known†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (M.Gass Selinker, 2008). Next, CA cannot detect some difficulties experienced by the TL learners. For example, â€Å"Je vois les/elle/la/le† . â€Å"I see them/her/her/him† (this phrase is impossible in French) (Choi, 2009). Error analysis (EA) is â€Å"a type of linguistic analysis that focuses on the errors learners make† (M.Gass Selinker, 2008). This analysis is almost the same with the weak version of CA which is comparing the errors which made by TL learners. However, EA is not evaluating the errors with TL native language (NL), but it compares with the TL. â€Å" Error analysis provides a broader range of possible explanations than contrastive analysis for researchers/teachers to use account for errors, as the latter only attributed errors to the native language† (M.Gass Selinker, 2008). I do agree with Gass and Selinker because as Corder (1967) says that by producing errors, it shows that the learners are progressing and participating. This statement is supported by the interlanguage theory, as according to Christina Gitsaki; â€Å"†¦interlanguage is seen as a kind of interim grammar gradually progressing towards the target language grammar† There are two categories of sources of errors which are interlingual and intralingual. Interlingual errors are kind of errors produced because of influence of the NL. Intralingual error happens when learners try to make a new rule for the target language. Example of interlingual error is, the word â€Å"rumah-rumah† in Malay Language can be said in English as â€Å"houses†. However, the learners would say as â€Å"house-house†. The TL learners mixed the lexical from the NL with the TL. Example of intralingual error is the word â€Å"telah† in Malay Language represents â€Å"was/were/had† in English. That is no doubt that a Malay learner would construct a sentence like this, â€Å"She were playing badminton† (wrong) â€Å"Dia telah bermain badminton† â€Å"She was playing badminton† (correct) The first sentence happens because there is no past tense marker in Malay language. So it becomes a problem for Malay learners since the TL and NL share different tenses. EA gives an important role because it makes the errors not as unwanted but as guidance to assess how the learners progress in TL. It also detects lots of errors, more than CA does. EA also recognizes the learners acknowledgement of language system. Besides, it also can categorized errors made by learners according to a system. However, EA is totally depends on errors made by learners. It is also cannot explain about what are classified as errors and non errors. In addition, EA as a mode of inquiry was limited in its scope and concentrated on what learners did wrong rather than on what made them successful (Larsen-Freeman, 1991). This shows that EA cannot cover lots of aspects since it is bounded by its range and errors are temptation for error analyzer. Statements a) There may be covert errors, A classic example from Corder (1981) is the German speaker who says â€Å"You must not take off your hat† when the intent is â€Å"You dont have to take off your hat†. In what sense is this error? In what sense it is not? According to Joachim Wagner (2007), James (1998) uses the term covert error to describe a genuine language error which results in a sentence which is syntactically well-formed under some interpretation different from the intended one. This means that there is no wrong about a dubious sentence but the understanding by both speaker and receiver are important. The statement â€Å"You must not take off your hat† is not wrong in the sense of German speaker but in English, the choice of the word or modal verb is wrong. The modal verb â€Å"must not† is not appropriate in this context. That modal verb means to prohibit or disallow the action of taking off the hat. The German speaker, literally, wants to say that the person does not have to take off his hat. However, instead of trying to convey a positive transfer sentence, the German speaker makes a negative transfer sentence. According to Jie (2008): â€Å"In the course of language learning, L1 learning habits will be transferred into L2 learning habits. Therefore, in the case of L1 transfer into L2, if structures in the MT have their corresponding structures in the TL and L1 habits can be successfully used in the L2, learners would transfer similar properties successfully and that would result in positive transfer. Contrastingly, in the case of negative transfer or interference, certain elements of the MT have no corresponding counterparts in the TL, L1 habits would cause errors in the L2, and learners would transfer inappropriate properties of L1† In other words, the German speaker forms a sentence in English, which has the same properties with the German language but unfortunately, the sentence is wrong in the sense of CA. Error in this statement can be referred to the L1 speaker. In Robert Lados words (1957:p.2): â€Å"The ‘fundamental assumption is transfer; ‘individuals tend to transfer the forms and meanings, and the distribution of forms and meanings of their native language and culture to the foreign language and culture†. I agree with Robert Lado since the German speaker tends to use direct translation if both languages properties are same to make a complete sentence. In this context, both German Language and English have the same grammatical order. For example, in German Language and English, the word order is subject + verb + other elements sentences. 1. er schlagt mir. (Subject) (Verb) (Other element) 2. He beats me. (Subject) (Verb) (Other element) Because of the structure similarity between German language and English, there is no syntax problem. Though, in the context of lexicon, the German speaker seems to confuse because in German language, there is no auxiliary verb â€Å"do†. German language only has â€Å"must† and the German speaker uses â€Å"must† as the word is quite similar to â€Å"do†, in his or her judgment. This error also happens to a Malay leaner. In Malay language, â€Å"tidak† is represented by â€Å"is not† and â€Å"do not†. For example, in Malay, the sentence, 1.â€Å"Dia tidak sempurna† (Subject) (Negation) (Predicate) Is written in English as 2.â€Å"He is not perfect† (Subject) (Negation) (Predicate) However, because of there are two negations that represent the word â€Å"tidak†, there is no doubt the sentence below, will be produced by Malay learners. 3. â€Å"He does not perfect† (Subject) (Negation) (Predicate) The first statement is logical but the second statement shows that errors and transferred inappropriate properties those made by TL learners because of the differences between the L1 and the TL. Clearly, the German speaker is struggling in choosing the right vocabulary although the error does not give an obvious picture of the difficulty. This is because, in his or her point of view, the usage of â€Å"must not† is correct even though the sentence has covert error. However, this justification cannot measure the degree of difficulty that the German speaker has. We cannot say that the German speaker is weak in English and not progressing. This error shows that the German speaker is in the process of improving his or her target language. From EA point of view, the German speaker made an intralingual error. The German speaker made an error in his or her sentence because of native language influence. He or she over generalizes the function of modal verb to make this sentence. Overgeneralization means â€Å"The introduction of a nonstandard or previously non-existent spelling or verb form when a speaker or writer makes an analogy to a regular spelling or a regular verb† (Wheeler, 2009) â€Å"You do not have to take off your hat†(correct sentence) â€Å"You must not take off your hat†(Over generalize the modal verb function) The German speaker believes that the statement is grammatically correct. The German speaker tries to simplify his or her task by employing this rule. He or she makes his or her own analogy by taking words that do not carry contrast for him or her. However, due to cross linguistic action, the modal verb being used is wrong, in terms of its function. In addition, this speaker seems that he or she does not master the function of the modal verb although the sentence is correct, literally. Besides, the German speaker does not know the correct modal verb in English to carry his or her intentional meaning. As a result, an ambiguous sentence has come out although the German speaker intention is to give suggestion. This also happens to Spanish learners. They would say 1. â€Å"He went to the market and buy a chicken† instead of 2. â€Å"He went to the market and bought a chicken†. They choose wrong tense and alter the word meaning. b. It might be more appropriate to talk about TL-behaviour. The fact that a learner has produced a correct form/sentence in a language does not necessarily mean that it is right. Target language like behavior from the grammatical point of view is happen when target language learners construct a sentence or a phrase because they have learnt the target language grammatical rules. However, the construction of sentence might or might not correct. As example, Malay learners would create a sentence like this â€Å"I eated the fruit† instead of â€Å"I ate the fruit†. From CA point of view, this error occurs because past tense is a new category for Malay learners. Although, the learners seem alert with the past tense rule which is -ed and subject verb agreement but they forget about past irregular form. They think that they have mastered the rules but they forgot about irregular verb rule. However, CA does not explain about the difficulty from the target language point of view. CA cannot give the correct degree of difficulty. Moreover, from the speakers perspective, they might think that the sentence is no wrong even with the covert error. So, we cannot say that the speakers are having difficulty to understand the rule since they can produce a correct form of sentence but with covert error. On the other hand, from error analysis point of view, a sentence like â€Å"You must not take off your hat† evens the intention of the speaker is â€Å"You do not have to take off your hat† is correct. The structure of the sentence is correct and there is no mistake produces. However, the meaning of the sentence is distorted. This is because, error analysis is totally depends on errors but not the usage of the sentence. Though, to the speaker perspective, this is a correct sentence since there is no grammatical mistake. On the other hand, the solidness of the first sentence makes the EA is useless to explain this sentence. So, even the sentence is wrong according to CAH, but it is consider as correct to EA. C.It is not always possible to provide a single explanation for interlanguage data. Interlanguage is the way the learner develops the target language knowledge. This term was produced by Selinker (1972) â€Å" Interlanguage refers to the structured system which learner constructs at any given stage in the development†. There are strategies apply by the learners to progress in target language such as transfer. Transfer is â€Å"Influence resulting from the similarities and differences between the target language and any other language that has been previously (and perhaps imperfectly) acquired (Ellis, 1997). Interlanguage is systematic and dynamic. Interlanguage is systematic because the rules are efficiently selected by the learners and the way the TL learners acquired TL is the same with native speaker acquires NL. Interlanguage is dynamic because the learners interlanguage is continuously shifting. The learners tend to make new rules in one context and so on. In addition, this process form the approach to study the way the target language acquires by the learner. Though, this strategy does not apply to the target language learner alone, they also depict the way the children learn their native language. For example, an English child might come out with non-English like sentence. English Like Non-English Like She came yesterday. She comed yesterday This happens because the children generalize the rules. It is possible to say that the children already acquired the rule of tenses but they failed to apply them in certain circumstances. This also happens to the target language learners. For example, problem in pluralizing word. English Like Non-English Like Singular-mouse Plural-mice Singular-mouse Plural-mouses The word â€Å"mice† is always forgotten as plural form of a mouse. Instead of saying â€Å"mice†, the target language learners who apply interlanguage generalization strategy would say â€Å"mouses†. This might occur because of L1 interference. For instance, in Malay Language, the word â€Å"mouse† is â€Å"tikus†. However, there is no such word as â€Å"mice† in Malay language. So, Malay learners would go for â€Å"mouses† instead of â€Å"mice†. From CA perspective, these examples show that the learners have difficulties in pluralizing because of differences between the L1 and the TL. However, the first example proves that the NL speaker can make the same mistake as the TL learners. CA can be used to analyze the second example but it is not valid for the first example. In addition, from EA point of view, the learners would find that they make errors. On the other hand, EA still does not give the correct view of learners linguistic behavior. The first example explains that errors made by NL speaker. This is because the child overused the rule of past tense. EA can help the child to progress in leaning the NL by classifying the errors. However, there is no clear path to understand about the child linguistic behavior because the child already knew the rule of regular verb tense but not irregular verb tense. The second example happens because of cross linguistic error. The learners have knowledge in plural rule but due to difference between languages and NL interference, the rule is generalized and error occurs. Conclusion As conclusion, both CAH and EA have their own strength and weaknesses. The analysis of the sentence is important in order to detect error or to notify the progress of the second language learners. However, CAH and EA cannot work alone. For the sake of the language learners, these analyses should be worked hand in hand in order to improve the quality of the target language learners.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Via Negativa: A Way of Talking to God

Vla Negatlva Is a way of talking about God In only negative terms. For example, God Is not mortal; or God is not human. Both of these tell what God is not, instead of what he is. This is because our knowledge of God is limited by our finite human understanding, therefore. as God is out of this Universe, we find it extremely hard to talk about him. Saint Augustine said â€Å"If you comprehend, it is not God. If you are able to comprehend, It is because you mistake something else for God. Vla Negatlva allows us to compare God to things within our Universe that we understand, allowing s a sense of recognition with God, however not allowing us to reach a full understanding. This simple recognition Is meaningful enough for many, Including the like of Maimonides and Pseudo-Dionysius. Other philosophers believe that this negative way of speaking about God, is not the only meaningful way to talk of him. These will be discussed further within the essay. Moses Maimonides said that Via Negativ a was the only true way to speak of God.God is transcendent, so it is impossible to say what God is, we don't know. He herefore decided the only way we could speak of him, Is to talk In negatives. He gave the example of ‘God is not a human being. This Is because he Is transcendent, so cannot have a body. ‘ Maimonides believes that by giving positive ideas to God, we are lowering God to our human level of understanding. Words like ‘good' or ‘loving', which are often used to describe God, are simply are interpretations of those words, God is transcendent so in no way is he confined to this basic understanding. sing Via Positiva is Improper and disrespectful. However, Maimonides agrees that one positive tatement can be made about God, and this is that he exists, this is because the whole principle of Vla Negativa is based on the Idea that God exists. Pseudo- Dionysius follows the same belief as Maimonides, also stating that God is beyond assertion and beyond den ial, meaning that whatever you say about God, even if negative, doesnt ultimately tell us what God Is, It simply provides us with spiritual understanding of Him.This way of negatively speaking still allows us to recognise God as ‘good'. Even If we say ‘God Is not good,' this can made that God Is more than ust good, he may be wholly perfect So this account of speaking still allows for God being transcendent. It also accepts the fact that the finite cannot get a true grasp of the infinite. However, there are a few Issues with this view. This theory simple assumes that there is a God to talk about when there is no proof of this; some believe that the fact we cannot describe God, suggests there Is not anything to be descrlblng.If we were to only ever talk about objects in a negative manner, we would never grasp truly what an object was, only what it was not. Finally, many religious people believe that it is important to view God as positive and good, so Via Negativa removes this idea for the religious followers. Other philosophers take the complete opposite view of religious language, saying there is absolutely no meaningful way to talk about God. This view was taken by the Vienna Circle who believed that only analytic propositions and synthetic propositions 1 OF3 are meanlngTul. Analytic Decause tne Knowledge comes tnrougn logical reasoning, eg. he man was dead, so was not alive; synthetic principles because they can b proven o be true or false, so there meaningfulness can easily be shown, eg. The water is 27 degrees. The Vienna Circle followed the Verification Principle; this suggested that only empirically verifiable statements are meaningful, one that can be verified by sense experience. Meaningful language involves discussing things that exist only in reality. Therefore God does not fit into this category since he exists outside of our reality. Simply put, the Vienna Circle believe that there is no meaningful way to discuss talk.However, the princ iple allows historical facts to be meaningful, as they ould be verified at the time. Therefore, could not some of God's existence be verified? For example, ‘Jesus was raised from the dead,' is a historical fact and was verified by many at the time. There is room for God to exist within the principle, so their idea was weak. There are also issues with the fact that the principle itself is not verifiable, so therefore is a bunch of meaningless opinions. Hereby the Vienna Circle and their ideas are often overlooked. Paul Tillich is a philosopher of symbolism.He believes that symbols open up ealms of understanding that we often cannot access. A symbols stands for something other than whatever is represented, he gives the example of the American Flag; not only does it represent America, but it shows the unity and the strength of the nation. These secondary meanings are often things that we would struggle to explain, but a symbols makes it easy for us to recognise them and then disp lay them to others. Another example is a simple love heart; that heart can mean a lot of things too many different people, Justice, peace, love, safety†¦ Symbols allow personal nderstanding.Tillich therefore believes that symbols can be used to talk about God in a meaningful way. He suggests that religion and God are things of Ultimate Concern, things that we should strive to understand. God is a representation of many things like Justice, love and infinity. We struggle to understand these things normally, but religion symbolises these things and allows us to understand. Therefore, religious faith is a way of accepting these symbols, providing a great deal of meaning to God. Tillich then suggests that God can be spoken about in a meaningful way, by sing symbols to explain many of his known features.However, people find issues with this idea, mainly that religion is symbolising other things and isn't really in existence. It appears to lower God's power by simply saying that he i s used as an object of representation, rather than of his own great importance. Many religious people dislike this view, saying that God is the ultimate power and should not be lowered to such standards. There are many other theories on how to speak of God and whether it is meaningful or not; Aquinas' view on analogy, Hare's blik†¦ but I find Tillich's view on eligious language to be the best.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Applied Medical s Current Sustainability Practices Essay

Applied Medical has grown from its humble beginnings twenty years ago to a quarter billion dollar company by implementing an unconventional, vertically-integrated business model that has catapulted the company to be world leader in the laparoscopic trocar market. . The company s mission is to reduce the cost of healthcare by providing the best quality medical devices at the lowest possible price. We are proud to have a significant and sustainable impact on healthcare by delivering technologies that enhance clinical care and satisfy the pressing economic needs of our customers (Applied Medical, n.d., para.1) . Applied Medical has demonstrated that takes its social responsibility seriously through different initiatives that benefit customers and the community. This paper presents a synopsis of Applied Medical s current sustainability practices, discusses specific sustainable practices that can benefit the triple bottom line immediately, and finally exhibits the benefits of synergizing corporate responsibility activities by appointing a Corporate Social Responsibility Manager to Applied Medical s leadership team. Analysis Applied Medical recognizes the value of being a good corporate citizen though its community outreach programs and by keeping the cost of healthcare low. Blocher (2011) stated that Applied Medical is a compassionate corporation since it encourages its employees to volunteer for the Free Wheelchair Mission, which is a non-profit organization dedicatedShow MoreRelatedDevelopment Of Standardized Policy And Procedures1316 Words   |  6 Pagesproclaimed a new health policy: a Barefoot Doctor lay health care provider program designed to address the shortage of physicians in China s vast rural populations1-3 to the conjoint efforts in the United States’ â€Å"Great Society Mission4† to current State models which vary drastically in regards to legislation and framework, certification, scope of practice, financing, training and education5-7, a unified compendium for standards of care needs to be instilled into the healthcare navigation frameworkRead MoreManaging Global Business : The General Electric / Mckinsey Matrix1683 Words   |  7 Pagesthat its primary goal is to return a profit to its shareholders, but GE also focuses on stakeholders. 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